1. This figure includes beneficiaries of Head Start, Early Head Start, CCDF, MIECHV, state-funded Pre-K, and IDEA Parts B, Sec. 619 and C. In some cases, children and families are served by more than one program. 

2. Census 

3. Census 

4. Census 

5. Census

6. Census 

7. Council for a Strong America                                                                                                       

9. Office of Child Care (OCC), “FY2020 CCDF Preliminary Data Tables

10. Center for American Progress (CAP) – Early Learning in the U.S.: 2019

11. Office of Head Start Performance Indicator Report (PIR)

12. PIR and CPS, “Annual Social and Economic (March 2022)”

13. PIR

14. PIR and CPS, “Annual Social and Economic (March 2022)”

15. Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), “Home Visiting Program: State Fact Sheets

16. National Institute for Early Education Research (NIEER), “State of Preschool 2022”

17. NIEER (includes preschool, Head Start, and Special Education)

18. U.S. Department of Education (ED)

19. ED

20. CAP defines “child care desert” as any census tract with more than fifty children under age five that contains either no child care providers OR more than three times as many children as licensed child care slots.

21. CAP


23. Child Care Aware of America, “2022 Child Care Affordability Analysis

24. ACF, “ECE State Profiles” Data from 2019

25. Ibid (average for center-based and home-based care for one infant and one 4-year-old)


27. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)


29. State of Babies Yearbook 2022

30. Head Start Early Childhood Learning and Knowledge Center

31. OCC, “GY2023 CCDF Allocations” (Based on Appropriations)

32. HRSA

33. ED

34. Ibid

35. Office of Family Assistance TANF FY2021 Financial Data (includes early care and education and funds transferred to CCDF discretionary)

36. FFYF


38. OCC 

39. FFYF

40. CARES CRSSA, ARPA (CCDF + Stabilization)

41. ACF, “Child Care Stabilization Funding State Fact Sheets” As of December 31, 2022